December 2, 2020 Find out more MaltaEurope – Central Asia Activities in the fieldProtecting journalistsMedia independenceProtecting sources CorruptionOrganized crimeWomenImpunityCitizen-journalistsWhistleblowersEconomic pressureJudicial harassmentViolence Receive email alerts Related documents rapport_2019_v4.pdfPDF – 5.25 MB RSF_en Chapter One outlines the assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia, background on her courageous investigative journalism, and implications for the safety of journalists and press freedom across Europe. Chapter Two examines the flawed police investigation that followed, and where things currently stand. Chapter Three explores the magisterial inquiry and police interference that has risked compromising it. Chapter Four describes the broader state of press freedom and journalism in Malta, including extensive online trolling, a continued dehumanization campaign, and threats against the press. Chapter Five outlines key reactions and findings of international bodies, and Chapter Six delves into the crucial and urgent need for a public inquiry into Caruana Galizia’s assassination. News News Organisation At the end of the report, RSF and The Shift have set out a series of recommendations to the Maltese authorities and the international community to ensure full justice is carried out. Crucially, a fully independent and impartial public inquiry must be established without further delay – a step which will require greater political pressure from international organisations such as the Council of Europe, as well as countries with strong bilateral relations with Malta, including the United Kingdom. On 16 October 2017, journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia was assassinated by a car bomb that detonated near her home in Bidnija, Malta – an act that was previously unthinkable in an EU state. Caruana Galizia was the country’s most prominent journalist, known for her courageous investigative reporting exposing official corruption in Malta and beyond, including her reporting on the Panama Papers. RSF and The Shift have co-authored this report to examine the circumstances surrounding Caruana Galizia’s assassination, the flawed investigation that followed, the international reaction to date, and the next steps urgently needed to ensure full justice is carried out without further delay. This report has been developed under a project funded by the Justice for Journalists Foundation. February 24, 2021 Find out more News Follow the news on Malta October 14, 2019 – Updated on October 15, 2019 RSF Report: The assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia and Malta’s deteriorating press freedom climate News Help by sharing this information MaltaEurope – Central Asia Activities in the fieldProtecting journalistsMedia independenceProtecting sources CorruptionOrganized crimeWomenImpunityCitizen-journalistsWhistleblowersEconomic pressureJudicial harassmentViolence June 2, 2021 Find out more RSF and 60 other organisations call for an EU anti-SLAPP directive RSF and The Shift remain committed to the pursuit of justice for Daphne Caruana Galizia until every person involved in the planning and carrying out of this heinous attack – including the masterminds – are brought to justice. Use the Digital Services Act to make democracy prevail over platform interests, RSF tells EU Read the report A full two years on, there has still been no justice for this heinous assassination, which has shed light on broader systemic failings with regard to Malta’s press freedom climate, rule of law, and democratic checks and balances. Over the course of two years, Malta has experienced one of the world’s sharpest declines on Reporters Without Borders’ (RSF’s) World Press Freedom Index, falling 30 places to a current ranking of 77thout of 180 countries. Journalists continuing to pursue public interest investigative reporting in Malta remain at great risk, and citizen journalists and activists who remain vigilant in the campaign for justice are subjected to pressure and abuse. Malta: Developments in murder case mark nascent steps towards justice for Daphne Caruana Galizia to go further
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is key to the mixing and ventilation of the world’s oceans. This current flows from west to east between about 45° and 70°S connecting the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, and is driven by westerly winds and buoyancy forcing. High levels of productivity in the current regulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Reconstructions of the current during the last glacial period suggest that flow speeds were faster or similar to present, and it is uncertain whether the strength and position of the westerly winds changed. Here we reconstruct Antarctic Circumpolar Current bottom speeds through the constricting Drake Passage and Scotia Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene based on the mean grain size of sortable silt from a suite of sediment cores. We find essentially no change in bottom flow speeds through the region, and, given that the momentum imparted by winds, and modulated by sea-ice cover, is balanced by the interaction of these flows with the seabed, this argues against substantial changes in wind stress. However, glacial flow speeds in the sea-ice zone south of 56°S were significantly slower than present, whereas flow in the north was faster, but not significantly so. We suggest that slower flow over the rough topography south of 56°S may have reduced diapycnal mixing in this region during the last glacial period, possibly reducing the diapycnal contribution to the Southern Ocean overturning circulation.
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